Fragrances typically belong to one of nine fragrance families: Aromatic, Citrus, Floral, Fresh, Fruity, Gourmand, Green, Oriental and Woody. A Citrus fragrance is defined by its predominantly light, fresh character which is due to it containing notes of one or more citrus fruits, from orange and bergamot to lime and yuzu, tangerine and grapefruit, clementine or mandarin. Other orange-tree ingredients are also common to this category; ingredients such as neroli, and petit grain, a citrus extract derived from the leaves and twigs of the bitter orange tree. Throughout perfume history, colognes and eaux de colognes have been defined by their characteristic citrus notes. Classic citrus colognes that have stood the test of time include Dior Eau Sauvage, Aqua di Parma Colonia, Chanel Pour Monsieur and of course 4711 Original Eau de Cologne which is considered by many as the first cologne. Story has it that 4711 was concocted by an expat Italian living in Germany who was pining for the scents of home. Increasingly, there is overlap between the families of scent. Many modern-day perfumes, for example may contain ingredients or notes that allow them to be classified within more than one fragrance family: For instance, there are fruity-floral scents, fresh-woody perfumes and aromatic-citrus toilettes.

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